OAH Home Donate to OAH Join the OAH

The Journal of American History


JAH Stylesheet

Revised November 2011.

This document is also available as a PDF. Click here to download.

Text

Mechanical matters:

1. Text should be typed and double-spaced.
2. Notes should be placed at the end of the article and triple-spaced.
3. The name of the author should appear only on a separate title page preceding the text.

Spelling, punctuation, and similar matters of form:

4. For spelling and word division, follow Webster’s Third New International Dictionary.
5. For capitalization, hyphenation, use of numbers, punctuation, and other matters of style, follow The Chicago Manual of Style, sixteenth edition, 2010.
6. Unlike other inclusive numbers, inclusive years should be typed as 1982–1987, not as 1982–87 or 1982–7.

Names of individuals and organizations:

7. People must be fully identified by first and last names when they are first mentioned in the text. Names of authors mentioned in text should usually correspond exactly to their names as given in footnotes or headnotes. The use of titles such as Dr., Rev., Gen., Mrs., and Miss is discouraged.

8. Acronyms (such as naacp, aclu, cio) should not be used to identify organizations until the organizational name has first been provided in full and the acronym indicated—for example, “National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (naacp).”

Quotations:

9. Quotations should correspond exactly with the originals in wording, spelling, interior capitalization, and interior punctuation.

Sic will not usually appear in the published article, but it is helpful if the manuscript submitted by the author indicates errors or idiosyncrasies present in the original source in this manner.
10. Observe the distinction between 3-point and 4-point ellipses. Indicate omissions within a quoted sentence by three spaced periods. When the omitted passage includes the end of a sentence, indicate the ellipsis by four periods with no space before the first. Ellipsis points are seldom necessary at the beginning or end of a quoted passage, since the reader normally assumes that something precedes and follows any quotation. (See The Chicago Manual of Style, 13.51–56.)
11. Interpolations of the author’s own comments or explanations into quoted matter should be enclosed in square brackets, not parentheses. Such interpolations should be kept to a minimum.

Tables and figures:

12. Each table should be identified by both a number and a descriptive title. Each must have its sources indicated, and the author should clearly indicate where each table should be placed in the text. The Journal does not usually favor putting all the tables at the end of the article. ( fThe Chicago Manual of Style discusses problems of format and style in chapter 3.)
13. Figures (illustrations) are numbered separately from tables, and they also must be identified by descriptive captions (including a date). The source for each figure should be given, and the author should clearly indicate where each figure should be placed in the text.
14. Figures (illustrations) are numbered separately from tables, and they also must be identified by descriptive captions (including a date). The source for each figure should be given, and the author should clearly indicate where each figure should be placed in the text.

If the article is accepted for publication, the author is responsible for obtaining permission to reprint the images and for supplying camera-ready or digital copies of the figures.

Footnotes

General considerations:

14. Notes should be triple-spaced.
15. The first note, not numbered, will give a very brief identification of the author. The author may use the same note to thank individuals and institutions for assistance. Such acknowledgments should be brief.
16. In general, and for all matters not covered by this style sheet, the Journal follows the footnote style outlined in chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style, sixteenth edition, 2010.
17. Please proofread all notes carefully for matters of style and of substance. While contributors vary, on average we find more than one substantive error or omission in each footnote we check. When numerous stylistic changes need to be made at the copyediting stage, substantive errors are likely to creep into the printed copy and to go undetected when they occur.
18. Each note should be complete in itself. Even if a work’s title and/or author appears in the text, that information should be included in the note.
19. The Journal does not use abbreviated forms such as HSTL for the Harry S. Truman Library or DSB for the Department of State Bulletin. Except for the months in dates and U.S. in the names of such agencies as U.S. Department of Agriculture, abbreviations should generally be avoided.
20. Forthcoming works may be cited, with as much reliable publication information as is available. Titles of forthcoming books should be underlined in typescript (they will be italicized in print). The citation should reflect the form the work will have when it is published, and the author should be prepared to update the citation in galleys if it has been published by that time. If it is not certain that the article or book will come forth (that is, if it is simply “in submission”), it should be cited as an unpublished manuscript.

Scholarly abbreviations:

21. Ibid. refers to the item preceding and takes the place of as much of the succeeding material as is identical. If more than one work is cited in a note, ibid. should not be used for the first citation of the following note. See Chicago rule 14.29. The Journal allows the use of ibid. for both printed and manuscript material.
22. Op. cit., loc. cit., idem, and “hereafter cited as” are not part of Journal style. Instead, for second references to books and articles, use the author’s last name, the short title, and pages. (See footnote samples following.) In assigning short titles, do not use 14.25 in The Chicago Manual of Style. Note especially that the order of words in the title should not be changed. A short title is formed by dropping any initial article in the title (i.e., A, An, or The) and dropping anything after a colon.
23. Passim and ff. are not encouraged. Specific pages should be cited whenever possible; otherwise the whole book or article should be cited.
24. Et al. is used if a book or an article has more than three authors. Note that it is not italicized or underlined and that “et” is not an abbreviation. Second references must also include et al. (See sample footnote 39.)

Avoid excessive footnoting.

25. “See also” references and general bibliographical discussion should be minimized. Once the source of information is given, there is rarely any need for citation of other sources that treat the same subject. A citation should usually mention specific pages in the cited work that are directly relevant to the article’s arguments.
26. Discursive material should be kept to a minimum. Notes should not be used to “save” material cut from the text.
27. Combine notes when possible. Footnote numbers should appear at the end of text sentences, never in midsentence. If the connection between text and citation is thereby obscured, add a brief clarifying phrase to the note. In general, there should be no more than one note per paragraph. (Do not, however, combine references to material appearing in more than one text paragraph in a single note.)

Discursive material:

28. When a note combines citations with discursive material, the citations should follow the discursion and not be inserted within it. Use the form “For a good discussion of the problem, see Cortland P. Auser, Nathaniel P. Willis (New York, 1969), 15” rather than “Cortland P. Auser, Nathaniel P. Willis (New York, 1969), 15, contains a good discussion of this problem.”
29. When a person’s name first appears in the discursive text of a note, it should be given in full regardless of whether the name has previously appeared in the text of the article, as the author of a cited work, or in a manuscript citation. Thereafter only the last name is used unless another person mentioned in discursive material has the same last name.

Citations to Books

Required information:

30. a. Author’s or editor’s name as it appears on the title page
b. Full title and subtitle exactly as they appear on the title page
In the case of books published in the twentieth century, capitalization and punctuation should be regularized to accord with The Chicago Manual of Style rules 8.154–65. Older works retain the original capitalization and spelling.
Prepositions of any length are lowercased unless they are the first or last word in a title or subtitle or function as adverbs, adjectives, or conjunctions.
Form short titles by dropping any initial article in the title (i.e., A, An, or The), dropping anything after a colon, and dropping any year range following a comma.
c. Total number of volumes for any multivolume work
d. Place of publication
Use n.p. if not known and [city] if the place is known but does not appear in the book. The state as well as the city of publication is included if the city is obscure or if confusion may result from its omission (as in sample note 34 where Cambridge might be either Cambridge, Mass., or Cambridge, Eng.).
The Journal uses older forms of state abbreviations, not the two-letter abbreviations preferred by the U.S. Postal Service. See The Chicago Manual of Style rule 10.28.
e. Year of publication
Use n.d. if not known and [year] if the date is known but does not appear in the book.
f. Pages cited or, for a multivolume work, volume and pages
The pages should be given as 343–45, not as 343–345 or 343–5. Multiples of 100 are followed by all digits of the second number. See The Chicago Manual of Style rule 9.60 for details on the use of inclusive numbers. Volume numbers of multivolume works are given in capital roman numerals.
Use “esp.” in front of page numbers to indicate the page on which direct quotes can be found.
Second references to books require author’s last name, short title, and pages.

Further considerations:

31. Note that Journal style does not indicate the publisher; we rely on the year of publication to make the edition clear. We do not use series titles.

Samples of Citations to Books

(Samples of full references are followed by samples of second references.)

Basic monograph citation:

32. Gerald R. Ford, A Time to Heal: The Autobiography of Gerald R. Ford (New York, 1979), 141–42.
32. Ford, Time to Heal, 415–16.

Edited or translated works:

33. L. Brent Bohlke, ed., Willa Cather in Person: Interviews, Speeches, and Letters (Lincoln, 1986), 147.
33. Bohlke, ed., Willa Cather in Person, 59.
34. Joseph Jefferson, The Autobiography of Joseph Jefferson, ed. Alan S. Downer (Cambridge, Mass., 1964), 19.
34. Jefferson, Autobiography of Joseph Jefferson, ed. Downer, 25.
Note 33 is a book that Cather did not write in this form. Note 34 is a book written by Jefferson; it exists in other editions and with no editor at all. When in doubt about this distinction, include the editor.
35. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan (New York, 1977), 250–54.
35. Foucault, Discipline and Punish, trans. Sheridan, 251.

Multivolume works:

36. Worthington Chauncey Ford, ed., Letters of Henry Adams, 1858–1918 (2 vols., Boston, 1930–1938), II, 461, I, 195.
36. Ford, ed., Letters of Henry Adams, II, 249.7

Separately titled volumes of a multivolume work:

37. Kenneth Scott Latourette, A History of the Expansion of Christianity, vol. IV: The Great Century; A.D. 1800–A.D. 1914, Europe and the United States of America (New York, 1941), 1.
37. Latourette, History of the Expansion of Christianity, IV, 26.
This format is appropriate when the editor, author, or place of publication varies from volume to volume. Ordinarily it will be sufficient to cite the multivolume title, ignoring the separate volume titles. The format then would follow that in sample note 36.
Notice that the second reference uses the format from note 36 in any case.

Books with more than one author or editor:

38. Mark Philip Bradley and Marilyn B. Young, eds., Making Sense of the Vietnam Wars: Local, National, and Transnational Perspectives (New York, 1991), 11.
38. Bradley and Young, eds., Making Sense of the Vietnam Wars, 213.
39. Jacquelyn Dowd Hall et al., Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World (Chapel Hill, 1987).
39. Hall et al., Like a Family, 56.
Note that “et al.” is used for books with more than three authors or editors.

Books with pseudonymous authors or without author’s name on the title page:

40. [Edward H. Fairchild], Berea College, Ky.: An Interesting History (Cincinnati, 1875), 85; Martin Morton [pseud.], A Style Sheet (Bloomington, 1982), 15; An Israelite [George Houston], Israel Vindicated: Being a Refutation of the Calumnies Propagated Respecting the Jewish Nation (New York, 1820), 30.
40. [Fairchild], Berea College, 86–89; Morton [pseud.], Style Sheet, 32; [Houston], Israel Vindicated, 102–3.
Fairchild is known to be the author, but his name does not appear on the title page. Morton is known to be a pseudonym, but the real name of the author is unknown. Houston is known to be the author, but the title page indicates the pseudonym “An Israelite.” When no author is known, cite the work by title. Note that in second references the real name, not the pseudonym, is used.

Reprints and other later editions:

41. Catharine Sedgwick, Home (1835; New York, 1890), 56.
41. Sedgwick, Home, 55.
This form is used only when the original publication date of a work is of interest. Otherwise, the Journal allows the publication date to make the edition clear, omitting references such as “second edition.”

Non-English books:

42. Philippe Jacquin, Le cow-boy: Un américain entre le mythe et l’histoire (The cowboy: An American between myth and history) (Paris, 1992), 200–240.
42. Jacquin, Cow-boy, 211.
Titles in languages that do not use the Latin alphabet (Japanese, Russian, etc.) should be transliterated or romanized into Latin characters. The non-English title is capitalized according to the rules of the original language. (Follow rule 11.9 in The Chicago Manual of Style.) Note that the English translation is capitalized as standard run of text. The first footnote to a quotation in English from a non-English source should include a comment such as “I have translated into English quotations from French sources.”

Standard reference works that are alphabetically arranged:

43. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. “Prayers for the Dead.”
43. Encyclopaedia Britannica, s.v. “Wadsworth, Jeremiah.”
In citing well-known reference books, the publication information—place of publication and date—are usually omitted, but the edition must be given if it is not the first.

Government publications:
Basic form:

44. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Yearbook of Agriculture, 1931 (Washington, 1931), 1.
44. Department of Agriculture, Yearbook of Agriculture, 1931, 194.
When in doubt we try to treat published government documents as books. Note that U.S. is abbreviated in footnote references to government agencies (an exception to the general rule against abbreviation).

Committee reports:

45. U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Relief for Drought Stricken Areas, 71 Cong., 3 sess., Dec. 5, 1930, pp. 45–52.
45. Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, Relief for Drought Stricken Areas, 45.

Congressional Record:

46. Congressional Record, 82 Cong., 2 sess., Nov. 19, 1949, p. 9505.
Annals of Congress follows the same format. There is no short version for these cites.

Foreign Relations of the United States:

47. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1946 (11 vols., Washington, 1969–1972), XI, 223.
47. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1946, X, 52.
We do not give the titles of individual volumes or the editors for this series.

Census:

48. U.S. Department of Interior, Census Office, Compendium of the Eleventh Census: 1890, pt. I: Population (Washington, 1892), 41–42.
48. Census Office, Compendium of the Eleventh Census, pt. I, 57.
In a first references to census materials, we cite the title of the individual volume. This is essentially the same format as is used for a separately titled volume of a multivolume work. See sample note 37 above.

Citations to Articles

Required information:

49. a. Author’s name as it appears on the first page of the article
b. The full title and subtitle as they appear on the first page of the article (Capitalization and punctuation of twentieth- and twenty-first-century publications should be regularized to accord with The Chicago Manual of Style rules 8.157–65. Older works retain the original capitalization and spelling.)
Prepositions of any length are lowercased unless they are the first or last word in a title or subtitle or function as adverbs, adjectives, or conjunctions.
Form short titles by dropping any initial article in the title (i.e., A, An, or The), dropping anything after a colon, and dropping any year range following a comma.
c. Full publishing information for the journal or book in which the article appears
Citations to articles in journals should include journal name (excluding any initial “the”), volume number in Arabic numeral, month or season, and year. Citations to articles in books should include book editor, book title, place of publication, and year.
Newspaper articles are an exception. They require only the name of the paper, the date, and the page citation. (Pages are not necessary for short eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century papers.)
d. Pages cited
They should be given as 343–45, not as 343–345 or 343–5. Multiples of 100 are followed by all digits of the second number. See The Chicago Manual of Style rule 9.60 for details on the use of inclusive numbers. Page numbers ordinarily appear without the introductory abbreviations p. or pp., but when only a comma separates a page number from another arabic number, we insert p. or pp. for clarity. (See sample notes 60 and 63.)
Use “esp.” in front of page numbers to indicate the page on which direct quotes can be found. Second references to articles require author’s last name, the article’s short title, and pages.

Further considerations:

50. Months from Aug. to Feb. are abbreviated; those from March to July are spelled out in full. There is no comma between the month and the year of the date.
51. Series numbers are not used—Journal style relies on the article’s date to make the series number clear.

Samples of Citations to Articles

(Samples of full references are followed by samples of second references.)

Articles in journals:

52. Francis M Carroll, “The Search for the Canadian-American Boundary along the Michigan Frontier, 1819– 1827: The Boundary Commissions under Articles Six and Seven of the Treaty of Ghent,” Michigan Historical Review, 30 (Fall 2004), 77–104.
52. Carroll, “Search for the Canadian-American Boundary along the Michigan Frontier,” 101.
Note that a comma is used between the journal title and the volume number and that there is no comma between the month or season and the year.

Articles in journals that provide only issue numbers instead of volume numbers or seasons:

53. Sean Wilentz, “Against Exceptionalism: Class Consciousness and the American Labor Movement, 1790– 1920,” International Labor and Working Class History (no. 26, 1984), 1–24. Robert Gioielli, “‘We Must Destroy You to Save You’: Highway Construction and the City as a Modern Commons,” Radical History Review (no. 109, Winter 2011), 62–82.
53. Gioielli, “‘We Must Destroy You to Save You,’” 70.
54. Samuel P. Hays, “Theoretical Implications of Recent Work in the History of American Society and Politics,” History and Theory, 26 (no. 1, 1987), 15–31.
54. Hays, “Theoretical Implications of Recent Work in the History of American Society and Politics,” 16.
Sample note 53 shows a journal that has only issue numbers (no volumes); sample note 54 shows a journal that has issue numbers instead of months or seasons.

Articles in books:

55. Donald M. Scott, “Antislavery as a Sacred Vocation,” in Antislavery Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Abolitionists, ed. Lewis Perry and Michael Fellman (Baton Rouge, 1979), 51–74.
55. Scott, “Antislavery as a Sacred Vocation,” 51–74.
56. Leonard L. Richards, “The Jacksonians and Slavery,” in Antislavery Reconsidered, ed. Perry and Fellman, 99–118.
Note that the editors’ names follow the title of the book. The “ed.” has no “s” even when there are several editors—in this case it means “edited by.” Sample note 56 is an example of a first reference to an article in a previously cited book.

Documents published in a collection of documents:

57. Benjamin Franklin to David Hartley, Feb. 12, 1778, in The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. William B. Willcox et al. (37 vols., New Haven, 1959–), XXV, 651.
57. Franklin to Hartley, Feb. 12, 1778, in Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Willcox et al., XXV, 651.
58. William B. Willcox et al., eds., The Papers of Benjamin Franklin (37 vols., New Haven, 1959–), XXV, 651.
58. Willcox et al., eds., Papers of Benjamin Franklin, XXV, 651.
Individual documents appearing in published collections of documents may be cited much as articles appearing in an edited volume are. Citations that simply direct readers to particular pages in published document collections, without giving the name or date of the document (as in sample note 58), are equally acceptable.

Untitled book reviews:

59. Joseph A. Stout Jr., review of Agents of Manifest Destiny by Charles H. Brown, Journal of American History, 67 (Sept. 1980), 410–11.
59. Stout, review of Agents of Manifest Destiny by Brown, 410.
A titled review would be treated like any other article. Note that we use only the main title of the book being reviewed, ignoring any subtitle.

Newspaper articles:

60. “The Anti-Chinese Law,” New York Times, Aug. 25, 1883, p. 4; “Fatal War among Races: Irishmen and Italians Cracking Each Other’s Skulls,” ibid., Sept. 20, 1886, sec. 4, p. 1.
60. “Anti-Chinese Law,” 4; “Fatal War among Races,” 1.
61. Freedman, “Harlem and the Speculators,” pp. A1, B2.
61. Samuel G. Freedman, “Harlem and the Speculators: Big Profit but Little Renewal,” New York Times, Dec. 19, 1986, pp. A1, B2.
62. Boston Gazette, April 15, April 22, May 26, 1790, Dec. 3, 1794.
62. Boston Gazette, April 15, 1794.
Notes 60 and 61, with page references, illustrate the preferred format, but the format of note 62 is acceptable for short eighteenth- or nineteenth-century papers. In references to mainstream twentieth-century newspapers, page numbers are essential. Newspapers with separately paginated sections must include section numbers or letters. See note 60 for a citation to a paper where the page numbers are all in sequence, note 61 for a case where each part has its own pagination. Note that a second reference to any of the items in note 62 would be identical to a first full reference to it. To facilitate references to newspaper articles that are now available online, please include the title (and author, if one is listed).
Note the use of ibid. in note 60; only the format found in note 62 allows the combining of several dates in a single citation.
The Journal supplies the city name in italics even if it does not appear on the masthead of the paper, and we omit any initial “the,” even if it appears on the masthead. For example, we cite Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette, although the masthead has The Journal-Gazette.

Articles in magazines:

63. Jack Alexander, “The Director—I,” New Yorker, Sept. 25, 1937, pp. 20, 25.
63. Alexander, “Director—I,” 20–22.
This form is for magazines that use a full date to identify issues. To cite an article in a magazine identified by month or season, follow the form in note 52.

Non-English articles:

64. Charles E. Neu, “Betonamu sensō no kōishō to Wangan sensō” (The legacy of Vietnam and the Persian Gulf War), Dōshisha Amerika Kenkyū (Kyoto), 28 (March 1992), 85–91.
64. Neu, “Betonamu sensō no kōishō to Wangan sensō,” 85–91.
Titles and journal names that are not in the Latin alphabet (Japanese, Russian, etc.) should be transliterated or romanized into Latin characters. The non-English article title is capitalized according to the rules of the original language. Note that the English translation is capitalized as standard run of text. The name of the journal is not translated, but the city of publication is provided. The first footnote to a quotation in English from a non-English source should include a comment such as “I have translated into English quotations from Japanese sources.”

Legal citations:

Use Harvard Law Review Association, The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, nineteenth edition, 2010, as a guide.

Court cases:

65. Smith v. Jones, 13 Rich. 937, 1041 (1856).
65. Smith v. Jones, 13 Rich. at 939.
The first citation provides case name, volume of series, abbreviation of series of reports, first page of report, page cited, and year. The second citation cites only case name, volume of series, abbreviation of series name, 14 and cited page.

U.S. Statutes at Large:

66. Labor Management Relations Act, sec. 301(a), 61 Stat. 156 (1947).
Cite name of act, section, volume, “Stat.,” page, and year.

United States Code:

67. Labor Management Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. sec. 185(a) (1952).
Cite name of act, volume, “U.S.C.,” section cited, and year.

Citations to Unpublished and Nontraditional Material

Manuscript citations:

68. Required information: Manuscript citations should always include an identification of the document (which will usually include a date), the name of the collection containing the document, and the repository and city where the document is located. We also try whenever possible to cite boxes and/or files within the collection by name or number.
69. In ordering the manuscript citation, Journal policy is to work from the specific toward the general. For example, in note 74 below we first identify the document (a letter) by names of correspondents and date; then we list the file containing the document, the collection, the repository, and its location. If the file is contained in a box, the name or number of the box follows the file name.
70. Note that we do not abbreviate within manuscript citations, except the months from Aug. to Feb. (which are abbreviated in dates), the names of states where manuscript repositories are located, and “U.S.” in the names of government agencies. The Journal uses older forms of state abbreviations, not the two-letter abbreviations preferred by the U.S. Postal Service. See The Chicago Manual of Style rule 10.28.

Further considerations:

71. When composing citations to material not covered in this style sheet, include all information the reader might need to locate the item. Using the form for manuscript citations as a model, work from the most specific to the most general information.

Samples of Citations to Unpublished and Nontraditional Material

(Samples of full references are followed by samples of second references.)

Standard form for unpublished papers:

72. James L. Fieser, “Drought Relief and Unemployment,” typescript, Oct. 18, 1930, p. 49, Drought File, Herbert Hoover Papers (Herbert Hoover Library, West Branch, Iowa).
72. Fieser, “Drought Relief and Unemployment,” 42–45.
73. Lou Hoover, “Notes on De Re Metallica,” [Jan. 1912], p. 2, Metallica file, Lou (Henry) Hoover Papers (Hoover Library).
With slight adaptations the format can be used for speeches, titled memos, unpublished reports, and the like. Note that further references to material in other collections in the same archives do not include the archives location (see sample note 73).

Manuscript letters:

74. Norman R. Hamilton to Franklin D. Roosevelt, June 5, 1936, President’s Personal File 2467, Franklin D. Roosevelt Papers (Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N.Y.).
74. Hamilton to Roosevelt, June 5, 1936, President’s Personal File 2467, Roosevelt Papers.
75. John Wilson to Mark Spitz, Nov. 27, 1966, March 23, March 29, May 15, 1967, box 3, Mark Spitz Collection (Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington).
76. Wilson to Spitz, Dec. 12, 1967, box 5, Spitz Collection.
Note that manuscript citations work from the specific to the general. If FDR’s personal files were housed in a box, we would have ... June 5, 1936, President’s Personal File 2467, box 5, Franklin D. Roosevelt Papers. ... If, on the contrary, the file contained a number of boxes, we would have ... June 5, 1936, box 5, President’s Personal File 2467, Franklin D. Roosevelt Papers. ...
Files and boxes with titles are capitalized (as in President’s Personal File 2467), but untitled ones are not (as in file 43, box a).
Letter citations may be combined as they are in sample footnote 75 only if the correspondents are the same and the location is the same.
Sample footnote 76 shows the format for a reference to a new document in a previously cited collection of papers.
The state in which a repository is located need not be given if it appears as part of the name of the repository or of its sponsoring institution.

Manuscript diaries:

77. Nils A. Olsen Diary, Dec. 9, 1930, p. 262, Nils Olsen Collection (Iowa State University Library, Ames).
77. Olsen Diary, Oct. 12, 1930, p. 212.
If pages are absent, dates can be combined as they are in sample note 75 above.

Manuscript telegrams, memos, etc.:

78. Bayard Rustin, memo, Jan. 1963, box 26, A. Philip Randolph Papers (Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.).
78. Rustin, memo, Jan. 1963, box 26, Randolph Papers.
Documents such as telegrams and memos can be cited much as letters are, with the kind of document indicated before the date.

National Archives material:

79. M. Martin to Lewis Cass, Nov. 27, 1832, St. Louis Superintendency, Letters Received, Records of the Office of Indian Affairs, RG 75 (National Archives, Washington, D.C.).
79. Martin to Cass, Nov. 27, 1832, St. Louis Superintendency, Letters Received, Records of the Office of Indian Affairs.
80. J. Pilcher to Wm. Clark, Feb. 27, 1838, Upper Missouri Superintendency, Letters Received, Records of the Office of Indian Affairs.
A first citation must include the correct record group number, but subsequent references stop—as do most second references—with the name of the collection.
Be sure to note in which location of the National Archives the materials can be found.

Dissertations:

81. Alfred Cash Koeniger, “‘Unreconstructed Rebel’: The Political Thought and Senate Career of Carter Glass, 1929–1936” (Ph.D. diss., Vanderbilt University, 1980), 69–80.
81. Koeniger, “‘Unreconstructed Rebel,”’ 72.
This format is also used for M.A. theses, senior honors papers, and the like. The assumption is that such papers are available at the institution identified. If not, use the standard form for unpublished papers.

Oral history citations:

82. John B. Howard telephone interview by Charles T. Morrissey, Feb. 23, 1973, transcript, p. 42, Pennsylvania Oral History Project (Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg).
82. Howard interview, 43.
83. Eleanor Smeal interview by Jane De Hart, April 1, 1987, audiotape (in Jane De Hart’s possession), side 1, tape 2.
83. Smeal interview, side 2, tape 1.
These are treated as parallel to letters in manuscript. One must always cite the interviewee, the interviewer, the date of the interview, the form of the record (i.e., audiotape, MP3, transcript, notes, etc.), and a location where the interview may be found. In some cases, further notation is required to locate the transcript within the archives.

Conference papers:

The citation of unpublished papers as secondary sources is discouraged. If they must be cited, they should be available for the perusal of other historians and a repository must be indicated. If no other location is available, cite it as in the possession of the article’s author or the author of the paper.

Papers from regular meetings of continuing organizations:

84. Kathryn Kish Sklar, “Florence Kelley and the Integration of ‘Women’s Sphere’ into American Politics, 1890–1921,” paper delivered at the annual meeting of the Organization of American Historians, New York, April 1986 (in Nell Irvin Painter’s possession), 22.
84. Sklar, “Florence Kelley and the Integration of ‘Women’s Sphere,’ into American Politics,” 7.

Papers from meetings bearing a name (often special, nonrecurring events):

85. Jacquelyn D. Hall, “Politics and Poetics: Writing the History of Southern Workers,” paper delivered at the conference “(Re-)Writing American Literary History,” University of Frankfurt, West Germany, June 1988 (in David Thelen’s possession).
85. Hall, “Politics and Poetics,” 33.

Commercially published microform works:

86. Peter J. Albert and Harold L. Miller, eds., American Federation of Labor Records: The Samuel Gompers Era (microfilm, 144 reels, Microfilming Corporation of America, 1979), reel 4.
86. Albert and Miller, eds., American Federation of Labor Records, reel 4.19
This form is modeled on the citations of edited multivolume works. It includes author or editor (if any), full title, type of material (microfilm, microfiche, etc.), quantity of material in the whole work (when available), publisher, date of publication, and—if needed—location of the item.

Microform works that are not commercially published:

87. O. G. V. Spain to H. W. Johnson, March 27, 1894, file 467, part 1 (microfilm: frame 40, reel T-2846), Department of Marine and Fisheries Records, RG 23 (National Archives of Canada, Ottawa).
87. Spain to Johnson, March 27, 1894 (frame 40, reel T-2846), Department of Marine and Fisheries Records.
88. Johnson to Spain, March 30, 1894, file 467, part 1 (frame 43, reel T-2846), Department of Marine and Fisheries Records.
Follow this form for manuscript material made available to researchers on microfilm by the repository that holds it or by some other scholarly or nonprofit agency. Such microfilm is not published, yet it is useful to learn that one need not journey to the repository to consult the manuscripts reproduced in it. The citation is modeled on that for manuscript material, so it proceeds from the most particular to the most general information. Sample note 88 is for a new item in the same collection.

Maps:

89. P. J. le Chevallier, “Saint-Laurent District,” map, in The Métis in the Canadian West, by Marcel Giraud (2 vols., Lincoln, 1986), II, 397.
89. Chevallier, “Saint-Laurent District.”
90. Solomon Bolton, “North America: Performed under the Patronage of Louis Duke of Orleans,” 1750, map, Cartography Collection (American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass.).
90. Bolton, “North America.”
Maps in books are treated like articles in books, and maps in archives are treated like documents.

Artwork (paintings, photographs, sculpture, etc.):

91. Cecilia Beaux, Les Derniers Jours d’Enfance, 1883–1885, painting, reproduced in American Art at the Nineteenth-Century Paris Salons, by Lois Marie Fink (Cambridge, Eng., 1990), 241.
91. Beaux, Les Derniers Jours d’Enfance.
92. Jacob Frymire, Priscilla Heale Calmes, 1806, painting, Painting Collection (Chicago Historical Society, Chicago, Ill.).
92. Frymire, Priscilla Heale Calmes.
Artwork can be cited as a reproduction in a published source, using a form parallel to an article citation (sample note 91); or it can be cited as an original in a museum or archives, using a form parallel to an unpublished manuscript citation (sample note 92).
First citations include (in order) artist, title, date, type (photograph, painting, drawing, etc.), and its city and state or county location (in a published work or in an archive).
The titles of cartoons appear in quotation marks, as do other items that appear only within larger published works.

Audiovisual material:

To make material as accessible to the readers as possible, we treat material differently depending on whether it is commercially available, archival, or merely broadcast. When more than one good version of an item is available, it is better to cite commercially available versions than to cite archival versions; citations to broadcasts are least desirable. Some idiosyncratic audiovisual material may require more information than is supplied in the following samples.

Published audio recordings of radio programs:

93. “Jack Buys a Coat,” March 3, 1940, in The Jack Benny Show (LP record, 6 discs; Mark 56 Recordings M- 4335; 1976), disc 3.
93. “Jack Buys a Coat,” March 3, 1940, in Jack Benny Show, disc 3.
A first citation gives (in order) the episode title, date of broadcast, title of recording, type of recording (LP record, compact disc, cassette tape, etc.), number of discs or tapes if necessary, recording company and record number, date of release, and specific disc or tape number if necessary. A second citation gives episode title, date of broadcast, title of published album, and specific disc number if necessary.

Published audio recordings of music:

94. Phil Ochs, “Love Me, I’m a Liberal,” performed by Phil Ochs, There but for Fortune (compact disc; Elektra 9-60832-2; 1989).
94. Ochs, “Love Me, I’m a Liberal,” performed by Ochs.
95. Phil Ochs, “Love Me, I’m a Liberal” (1966), performed by Phil Ochs, (1966), There but for Fortune (compact disc; Elektra 9-60832-2; 1989).
A first citation gives (in order) composer, composition title, performer, title of recording, type of recording (LP record, compact disc, cassette tape, etc.), number of discs or tapes if necessary, recording company and record number, date of release, and specific disc or tape number if necessary. A second citation includes the composer, composition title, and performer. If the dates of composition or performance are of interest, they can be supplied as they are in sample note 95.

Recordings in archives (audio or video):

96. “Jack Goes on a Date,” Nov. 3, 1935 (LP record), disc 1, series I, Jack Benny Collection (Museum of Radio and Television, New York, N.Y.).
96. “Jack Goes on a Date,” Nov. 3, 1935, disc 1, series I, Benny Collection.
Citations to archival recordings should be modeled on those to printed material in archives, and the format would include box or file numbers if the archives used them. The type of recording (LP record, cassette tape, videotape, etc.) is placed after the title and date. The second citation repeats the information up to and including the collection name, omitting the type of recording.

Published video recordings:

97. “The Escape,” in Roots, dir. Marvin Chomsky, David Green, and John Erman (Wolper Productions, 1977) (videotape, 6 tapes; Warner Home Video), tape 3.
97. “Escape,” in Roots, tape 3.
A first citation includes the episode title (if necessary), main title, director, production company, copyright date, format, number of tapes, distributor, and tape number when necessary.

Movies:

98. It’s a Wonderful Life, dir. Frank Capra (RKO, 1946).
98. It’s a Wonderful Life.
A first citation includes the title, director, production company, and copyright date.

Broadcast material (radio or television):

99. Marian Anderson, prod. Dante J. James, Bernard Seabrooks, and Tamara E. Robinson, WETA (PBS, May 8, 1991).
99. Marian Anderson.
100. “Agnes, the Indomitable de Mille,” prod. Judy Kinberg, dir. Merrill Brookway (episode of Dance in America, ex. prod. Jac Venza; part of Great Performances), WGBH Boston (PBS, May 8, 1987).
100. “Agnes, the Indomitable de Mille.”
A first citation includes the title, the producer and/or director, the production company (often, as in these cases, the production company is also a television station), the network, and the date it was first broadcast. If the specific date cannot readily be determined, use a month or season and the year.
If the program is part of a larger series, the series information is included in parentheses as it is in sample footnote 100.
If versions of broadcast material are available commercially (on videotape, DVD, cassette tape, etc.), those should be cited rather than the broadcast version. (See sample notes 93 and 97.)

CD-ROMs and DVDs:

101. Martha L. Benner and Cullom Davis, eds., The Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln: Complete Documentary Edition (3 DVDs, University of Illinois Press, Champaign, 2000).
101. Benner and Davis, eds., Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln.
This form is modeled on the citations of edited multivolume works and of commercially published microform materials. It includes author or editor (if any), full title, type and quantity of the material, publisher, and city and date of publication.

Citations to Electronic Sources

Required information:

102. Citations of electronic sources should include, if available, an author or editor, the title of the text, date, the title of the Web site, the electronic address, and page or paragraph numbers. If the date when the source was accessed is crucial to the argument you are making, include it in parentheses at the end of the citation.
103. Citations of books, journal articles, periodicals, and other sources published online should follow Journal form for traditional citations as closely as possible, with the addition of the electronic address.
104. Citations to online postings and e-mail messages should always include the date the author posted or sent the message.

Further considerations:

105. When composing citations to material not covered in this style sheet, include all information the reader might need to locate the item. Using the form for manuscript citations as a model, work from the most specific to the most general information.
106. When formatting URLs, please keep the following information in mind: Include the protocol (http://, https://, ftp://) at the beginning of the URL, and do not include default index pages at the end of URLs; these include index.htm, index.html, index.php, index.shtml, home.htm, and home.html.
107. Whenever possible, please direct readers to the most accessible version of a journal article. For example, please cite the paper version of a journal article instead of a limited-access or subscription-only online version. Please cite the paper version of a journal article if the online version does not display page numbers.

Samples of Citations to Electronic Sources

(Samples of full references are followed by samples of second references.)

Web site:

108. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress, Panoramic Maps, 1847–1929, http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/pmhtml/panhome.html.
108. Geography and Map Division, Panoramic Maps.

Article in an online-only journal:

109. Steven R. Haynes, “Original Dishonor: Noah’s Curse and the Southern Defense of Slavery,” Journal of Southern Religion, 3 (2000), http://jsr.as.wvu.edu/honor.htm, paras. 9–11.
109. Haynes, “Original Dishonor,” para. 20.

Article in newspaper:

110. Ethan Bronner, “You Can Look It Up, Hopefully,” New York Times, Jan. 10, 1999, p. A4, http://www.nytimes.com/library/review/011099language-database-review.html.
110. Bronner, “You Can Look It Up, Hopefully.”

Article in an online database:

111. “Jackson Calls for Protest of Florida Vote,” Los Angeles Times, Dec. 19, 2000, p. B4, available at LexisNexis Academic Universe.
111. “Jackson Calls for Protest of Florida Vote,” B4.
For online databases available only to subscribers, please simply provide the name (for example, LexisNexis Academic Universe, Academic Search Elite, or Dow Jones Interactive), rather than the Web address.

Page on a Web site:

112. Paula Petrik, “Scholarship on the Web: Managing & Presenting Endnotes & Footnotes,” Archiva, http://www.archiva.net/footnote/.
112. Petrik, “Scholarship on the Web.”

Document posted on a Web site:

113. “Gettysburg, July 1863,” photograph, Images of American Political History, http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail195.html.
113. “Gettysburg, July 1863.”
Follow the form above for any unpublished document posted on a Web site. You should indicate the type of document, for example, photograph, sound file, film clip, memo, or letter.
114. Mary Henderson Eastman, Aunt Phyllis’s Cabin; or, Southern Life as It Is (Philadelphia, 1852), 7–12, in Uncle Tom’s Cabin and American Culture, dir. Stephen Railton, http://www.iath.virginia.edu/utc/proslav/eastmanhp.html.
114. Eastman, Aunt Phyllis’s Cabin, 201.
115. Thomas Martin, “Niagara Movement Declaration of Principles, 1905,” American History Class Enhancement Pages, http://zuska.simplenet.com/USProjects/DBQs2000/APUSH-DBQ-40.htm.
115. “Niagara Movement Declaration of Principles, 1905.” There is no need to include in the citation all the people involved in the making of the Web site on which the source is posted. Providing the name of a general editor or director after listing the title of the Web site is sufficient.

Posting to a discussion list or on a blog:

116. Paul Finkelman, “Spielberg’s Amistad—reply,” online posting, Dec. 16, 1997, H-SHEAR (Society for the Historians of the Early American Republic) discussion list, http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/~shear/.
116. Finkelman, “Spielberg’s Amistad—reply,” online posting.

E-mail message:

117. John Ruffin to Anna Switzer, e-mail, Feb. 9, 1997 (in Anna Switzer’s possession).
117. Ruffin to Switzer, e-mail, Feb. 9, 1997 (in Switzer’s possession).
This form is modeled on the citations of letters, with the location of the message indicated in parentheses following the date.